Panca Yadnya means five rituals which consist of
1. Dewa Yadnya
2. Pitra Yadnya
3. Rsi Yadnya
4. Manusa Yadnya
5. Bhuta Yadnya
Rituals or yadnya is a part of Balinese duty in their life by presenting offerings to the God called Dewa Yadnya, offerings addressed to the spirits is Bhuta yadnya, offerings to the Ancestors called Pitra yadnya, offerings who addressed to Priests or Holy people is Rsi yadnya, offerings who addressed to the human is called Manusa Yadnya.
Dewa Yadnya ceremonies are performed to honor Sang Hyang Widi (God) and His manifestations (dewa/dewi). The performance of Dewa Yadnya is done with special offerings and is considered to be the duty of everyone.
The function of the ceremonial offerings are a means to express one's gratitude for the gift of creation and being a part of it. The (making of) offerings is also a means to learn to focus one's thoughts to God and His specific manifestations, depending on the occasion of the ceremony.
Dewa Yadnya events (upacara/dewasa)
Dewa Yadnya ceremonies are always performed as the most important among other Yadnya ceremonies of an auspicious day. Click an event name to read more on the purpose of that day and the performed Yadnya ceremonies and offerings (upacara/upakara) - (where available).
1. Daily: Yadnya Sesa
2. Kliwon, Purnama, Tilem
3. Pagerwesi (Budha Kliwon Sinta)
4. Tumpek Landep, Pemampahan Galungan
7. Tumpek Uduh
8. Budha Kliwon Pahing
11. Melaspas Alit
12. Matenin (Dewi Sri)
Pitra Yadnya ceremonies are performed to honor one's parents and the spirits of one's ancestors. Pitra Yadnya is considered to be the duty and responsibility of everyone (referred to as Sutakirya) since one has been taken care of by one's parents as a child which puts one in debt with them.
After growing up one is expected to take care of one's parents in a practical way during the remainder of their lifetime and to always honor them with good and honest conduct (referred to as Pitra Renam).
When one's parents are deceased, one is expected to take care of them and honor them in a symbolic way by performing certain Pitra Yadnya ceremonies with specific offerings at the auspicious times. The type of ceremonies and offerings may vary according to the circumstances and the character and goal of the ceremony. For example, sometimes the body of the deceased has to be buried first for an indefinite period of time (due to lack of money) before a cremation can take place.
Types of Pitra Yadnya ceremonies (upacara),
1. Mapendem Wau Lampus - prayers for the wellbeing of the soul
2. Mapendem Nyiraman Layon - washing of the body
3. Mapendem Sawa - burial of the body
4. Mageseng (Ngeseng Sawa) - cremation of the body
Resi Yadnya is the holy sacrifice dedicated to the Rsi (priest). The main aim of this ritual is to purify the body and soul of the person who want to be a priest.
Beside that, the ritual also aimed to express gratitude to the priests who transfer the religious teaching to the people.
The Nitya Karma (daily) applications of Rsi Yadnya are by building holy house for the priests, give holy fund for priests, pay a great respect to priests, and many more.
Meanwhile the Naimitika Karma (occasionally) are by carrying out some purification ceremonies for the person who will be a priest.
The purification ceremony is very essential since the priest have the duty of leading the holy ritual ceremonies. It is believed that the person who becomes a priest is reborn.
The first-born was from the mother fetus, while the second one is born from the holy knowledge. Then, after the reborn, the priest must not think about the materialistic, but concerned on the holy service to the religion, by leading a holy ritual ceremonies and spreading out the holy religious teaching.
Below are Manusa Yadnya process:
1. The ceremony of pregnancy (megedong-gedongan)
At the age of about 6-7 months of pregnancy a ceremony is held for the embryo and also for its parents, from this stage the character of the children can be formed, as every parents wish to have good baby, normal and healthy. The ceremony is held at home or in the spring and from now the mother is advised to spend time as much as possible to listen holy song "kidung and kekawin" of holy story Ramayana and Mahabharata until her baby is born. The husband stays as much as possible with his wife and he lets his hair long and from this stage until the baby is born he does not have hair cut in order he does not look cramming as before. The suggestion may be to avoid him from girls or women who may like him. Traditionally long hair of a Balinese man is a sign that his wife is being pregnant.
2. The ceremony of a baby has just born (mebuhu-buhu)
In the same day when the baby is born a small ceremony is held at home to bury the baby's placenta. The placenta should be very clean and should be handed by right hand otherwise when the baby grow-up he will become left handed. Yet, traditionally in Bali to give or receive one must use the right hand. It is impolite to do so by left hand. The ceremony is also for the four companions of the baby as describes in the Kanda empat Sari that a baby is born accompanied by other four companions spiritually they are named Yanta, Krepa, Bhuta and Bhutakala Surnamed Anggapati, Prajapati, Banaspati and Banas Patiraja and their physical figures are placenta, blood fetus and maniatik liquo. The four spiritual companions are as the counterpart in life time of the baby. So they must be respected otherwise they will disturb the baby.
3. The ceremony when the baby at age of 12 days (ngeroras rahinanin).
Twelve days after the birth a cleansing ceremony is held purposely for the impure state of the mother and then she may get her husband to do the household duties and also from this time she may enter temples, before this, since the baby was born she is not allowed at all for.
4. The ceremony when the baby at age of 42 days (mecolong).
This ceremony is purposely in order the baby is able to differentiate between good and bad and also hoping the baby will follow the way of truth, perfect blooming like flowers. A cooking pot, bud of banana's flower, symbolizes these purposes.
5. The ceremony at age of 105 days (nyambutin)
At the age of 105 days the baby touches the ground for the first time and from this time the baby is the full members of the family, before this stage he is considered like divine. A little shrine (plangkiran) is decorated for the dwelling place of Sang Hyang Kumara the deity of the baby, wish for protection and also to ensure the baby will be healthy and happy.
6. The ceremony at age of 210 days (otonan)
At the age of 210 days the baby celebrates its first birthday and is formally accepted to worship the ancestors and from now on this day is celebrated every 210 days or every 6 months wuku calendar as the birthday.
7. Ceremony at the coming of age (ngraja swala)
The coming of age of a child is at the first menstruation for the girl and laugher sound for the boy. The ceremony is asking purification blessing of any stains and to announce to the neighbors or the community member that there is a new young woman or young man in their society.
8. Tooth filing ceremony (Mepandes)
This ceremony can be done after adolescent or the coming of age of about 14-15 years old, the six upper tooth including the canine are filed to symbolize the six evil spirits in his/her body named Sad Ripu which caused conflict in all human are now overcome, such as :
· like to lie
· like to be praised
· like to slander.
And from now they are considered as fully women and men of course they start renouncing the childlike and so on.
9. Wedding Ceremony
Marriage is a must for the Balinese people to continue the generation and to keep the house private including the family temple. So a new couple is expected to have children. In Bali is known with two different customs of getting marriage called kawin lari or marriage by elopement and the other one is married by proposal, both are legal, more than 90% the marriages are by and the rest are by proposal, married by elopement is more romantic, they choose their partners by their own choice until both (girl and boy) really like each-other and then they pick the day for running away. The boy will keep the girl in his friend's home and as soon as possible he has to report to the cheap of the communal which then the new couple are protected by the community members, no strangers are allowed to come to the room where the new couple are hiding. After the sun is setting the new couple send a message to the girl's parent to tell what is happen, usually the message consists of two cheeps of communal "kelihan adat and kelihan dinas", and one or two relatives of the boy, they must bring a little lamp. Otherwise the girl's parent may refuse. Usually when the girl left her home for marriage running away she takes the best dresses and if possible to put offerings of canangsari at her family temple to represent that she goes away by her own choice in order the family is not so panic.
After three days or in selected day a formal ceremony is arranged to formalize that the new couple is groom and bride and as soon as the ceremony over they are considered as husband and wife.
The wedding ceremony is not attended by the bridge's family non-of the relative either and there is no dowry at all. In the same day or a day after the wedding ceremony the groom and the bride will go for a visit to the bride's parent to apologize of what they have done, usually they are accompanied by the whole community members and the close friends of the groom and bride but before they come a delegation is sent to tell that the groom and bride are going for a visit, if they are welcomed a visit can be done otherwise not at all that means the situation is in a critical and sad and also the young couple may never go to her parent's home at all that means as well they are not blessed. A nice technique can be done as long as the young couple calm and wait until a baby is born just take the baby home usually most of the critical problems sorted out with tears go by.
10. CREMATION CEREMONY
The cremation ceremony is carried out when people die especially for the Hindu Balinese with great preparations some days before. It could be done directly after people died or by burying the death body first at the cemetery ground. When the family has enough preparation or financial, so the body is taken back and cremated it's bone. The cremation ceremony commonly spends much money. The main purpose of cremation ceremony is to return the five elements of human nature. Those five elements are fire, water, earth, wind, and ether. In Balinese is known as "Panca Maha Buta". Followed by a certain ceremony and offerings, these five elements, except the element of water will return back to their nature respectively. The element of water will be returned by taking the ash and throw it to the sea or river flows to the sea. Higher priest at cemetery yard leads the ceremony.
Bhuta Yadnya ceremonies (upacara) are intended to cleanse
1. the physical content of a specific space (like temples, land or house compounds, and the people c.q. animals who live in that space) from the negative aspects and influences of non-physical content of that space.
2. the non-physical content of a space (consisting of various entities of bhutakala - spirits - that are considered to be lower than mankind) from its negative aspects and influences. The power of the postive aspects of these entities that will remain can then be used for the wellbeing of mankind and his environment.
Bhuta Yadnya Offerings (upakara)
The following offerings are commonly used with bhuta yadnya ceremonies
· Segehan (segehan kepel, segehan cacahan, segehan agung)
· Tetabuhan (tuak, arak, brem, water, raw blood of animals)
· Api Takep (fire and smoke)
Bhuta Yadnya Events (hari raya/dewasa)
Bhuta Yadnya ceremonies are conducted at among others, Yadnya Sesa (daily), Kajeng Kliwon, Penampahan Galungan, Tumpek Uduh, Tumpek Uye, Tumpek Kandang, and Nyepi (caru kesanga),